No. Once a cataract is completely removed, it does not come back. However, a secondary cataract, also known as a posterior capsular opacity, can develop. A posterior capsular opacity is essentially a scar tissue that forms behind an implanted lens following cataract surgery. Sometimes, this scar tissue can be seen immediately after cataract surgery, but more often, it develops over time, from months to years afterwards. As it grows, it can adversely affect vision, just as a cataract does, and will need to be treated.
A posterior capsular opacity can be treated by a laser procedure called a YAG capsulotomy. It is a painless procedure that takes about 5-10 minutes and is usually covered by medical insurance. The laser literally makes an opening in the scar tissue, centered on the visual axis. Patients can then see clearly through the opening. This solution is typically good for life and should not need to be repeated.